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The Top 10 International Drug Policy Stories of 2015 [FEATURE]

Medical Marijuana (STDW) - Thu, 12/24/2015 - 16:16

Last century's international prohibitionist consensus on drug policy continued to crumble this year, with moves to relax controls on medical and personal use of marijuana leading the way. But harm reduction measures such as supervised injection sites are also on the rise, international civil society and even some governments are laying the groundwork for reforming the global drug control regime next year at the UN, America's most stalwart drug war ally in South America changes its tune, and more.

Here are the biggest international drug policy stories of the year, in no particular order:

[image:1 align:left caption:true]Canada Elects a Marijuana-Legalizing Prime Minister. We may have a handful of legal pot states, but Canada is about to become the first country in North America to free the weed. Newly elected Liberal Prime Minister Justin Trudeau made marijuana legalization a central plank of his election campaign, and this month, he immediately ordered his new Justice Minister to get on it after winning the election. In the annual throne speech last week, his government reiterated its intention to legalize it. It won't happen overnight, but it's coming.

The US is No Longer the Bogeyman of International Drug Reform. It's not like 2001, when Jamaican decriminalization got put on the back burner after thunderous protests from the US embassy, or even 2009, early in the Obama administration, when more muffled protests from the US helped put the kibosh on drug decriminalization in Mexico. It's more difficult for Washington to criticize other countries when the Obama administration has signaled it can live with legal marijuana in US states, but the administration seems less inclined to do so, anyway. Last year, William Brownfield, head of the State Department's Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs enunciated a policy of tolerance toward reform efforts abroad, and the State Department reiterated that again this year. It's not all roses, though; the prohibitionist beast may be weakening, but its tail still twitches.

Laying the Groundwork for UNGASS on Drugs. The UN General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) on Drugs is coming next spring, and the international drug reform movement was busy preparing for it this year. In May, during the High Level Thematic Debate on drugs, reform groups released an open letter calling on the UN to respect countries' drug policy reforms, and in June, while the UNODC marked global anti-drug day, global civil society fought back with events and demonstrations around the globe. Then, in October, Sir Richard Branson provoked a kerfluffle by leaking a UNODC draft document that urged governments to consider drug decriminalization, forcing the agency to walk it back under pressure from at least one country. At year's end, the European Parliamentary Council called for a public health-oriented global drug policy. A lot more has been going on behind the scenes, too, but drug reform at the UN moves at a glacial pace. Stay tuned.

Afghan Opium Production Declines. For the first time since 2009, opium production has decreased in Afghanistan, the UNODC reported. The area under cultivation declined by 19% from last year -- an all-time high -- and production declined even more, by 48%. UNODC attributed the decline to drought conditions. "The low (overall) production can be attributed to a reduction in area under cultivation, but more importantly to a drop in opium yield per hectare," said the report, which was released last week. "The lack (of) sufficient water for irrigation... affected the decision of some farmers not to cultivate poppy."

[image:2 align:right caption:true]Iran Drug Death Penalty Mania Shows First Signs of Receding. Iran has executed hundreds of people for drug offenses this year, but a campaign to end European and UN funding of Iran's drug war has been picking up steam. Some European countries, including Denmark, Great Britain, and Ireland have stopped funding, and in October, the UN special rapporteur on Iran warned that it was using UN support to justify its aggressive use of the death penalty. But that didn't stop the UN Office on Drugs and Crime from this month increasing funding for Iranian anti-drug operations. While the struggle continues on the international front, this month, Iranian parliamentarians themselves expressed discomfort with the death toll. At least 70 are supporting an effort to end the death penalty in nonviolent drug smuggling cases. Lawmakers are now preparing a bill to present to the parliament.

Columbia Stops Aerial Spraying of Herbicide on Coca Fields, Farmers. With US backing and encouragement, the Colombian government sprayed the herbicide glyphosate on coca crops for years despite peasant protests that it was causing illness and damaging other crops and livestock. But in April, after a World Health Organization report reclassified the herbicide as "probably carcinogenic to humans," the health ministry called for the suspension of spraying. The following month, Colombia ended the program despite US pressure to continue it. Then, in September, President Juan Manuel Santos deepened the departure from two decades of US-style drug policies, unveiling a new national drug strategy that will emphasize alternative development.

Mexico Marijuana Moves. In a country where public opinion does not favor legalization, the Supreme Court stunned the nation in November by ruling that people have the right to grow and use marijuana. The decision does not undo Mexico's marijuana laws, but does open the door for a wave of legal actions that could end in their being rewritten. It also opened the door for a national debate on marijuana policy, with President Enrique Pena Nieto promising it will occur early next year.

Medical Marijuana Advances. More countries okayed the use of medical marijuana in 2015, including Australia, Croatia, and, just this week, Colombia. Meanwhile, Chile harvested its first medical marijuana crop in April, the Italian Army began growing it in May (to address shortages within the country), and the Dalai Lama endorsed it in June. That same month, Costa Rica outlined requirements for a pending medical marijuana bill, and in July, Israel announced it would make it available in pharmacies and allow more doctors to prescribe it.

[image:3 align:left caption:true]Jamaica Decriminalizes Ganja. In February, parliament voted to approve a government-supported decriminalization bill, and the law went into effect in April. Now, anyone, including foreign tourists, can now possess up to two ounces of ganja and face only a $5 fine. And any household can now grow up to five plants. Adult Rastafarians can also now use the herb for religious purposes. The law also paved the way for a regulatory authority for medical, scientific, and therapeutic uses. In July, Justice Minister Mark Golding signed an order to expunge minor marijuana convictions, and by December, the government had granted its second "marijuana exemption" allowing Rastafarians at a festival to partake of (and possess and transport) Jah Herb without fear of arrest.

Supervised Injection Sites Expand. The harm reduction measure allows drug users to ingest their drugs under medical supervision and without fear of arrest and has been proven to improve outcomes for users and the community without increasing crime or other negatives and without fear of arrest. At the beginning of the year, there were supervised injection sites in eight countries -- Australia, Canada, Germany, Holland, Luxembourg, Norway, Spain, and Switzerland. By year's end, two more countries got them up and running, France in the spring and Slovenia in the fall. Late in the year, Ireland approved a supervised injection site in Dublin. Meanwhile, in the US, the Drug Policy Alliance and other advocates are mounting a campaign to open one in New York City, which would be the first (official) one in the country.

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CN BC: Flying High

Cannabis - Medicinal (MAP) - Thu, 12/24/2015 - 08:00
Toronto 24hours, 24 Dec 2015 - Air Canada Grounds Medicinal Marijuana User Michael Korchak says he could see the stares and hear the whispers. He'd hit a snag on his trip home to Burlington last Thursday for Christmas and a group of Air Canada employees was gathering around him at its busy departure gate at the Halifax airport.
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CN BC: Canadians Facing Pot Charges In Limbo, While Liberals

Cannabis - Medicinal (MAP) - Thu, 12/24/2015 - 08:00
Globe and Mail, 24 Dec 2015 - While Rose Miranda waits for her April court date to face potential charges of possession for the purpose of trafficking, the 65-year-old retired education assistant can't take cannabis for her arthritis. The RCMP have also banned her from visiting or contacting anyone at Phoenix Pain Management Society, the medical marijuana dispensary where she was volunteering when she was arrested in Nanaimo, B.C.
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CN BC: Cannabis `Criminals' Left In Limbo

Cannabis - Medicinal (MAP) - Thu, 12/24/2015 - 08:00
London Free Press, 24 Dec 2015 - COURTS: Although the prime minister has vowed to legalize and regulate marijuana, the RCMP is still mandated to enforce current laws VANCOUVER - While Rose Miranda waits for her April court date to face potential charges of possession for the purpose of trafficking, the 65-year-old retired education assistant can't take cannabis for her arthritis. Mounties have also banned her from visiting or contacting anyone at Phoenix Pain Management Society, the medical marijuana dispensary where she was volunteering when she was arrested in Nanaimo, B.C. "I love Baby Trudeau, but he says, ' We're going to fix this.' When? Meanwhile, I have clients who don't have their medication," Miranda said.
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CN ON: Air Canada Leaves Flyer High And Dry

Cannabis - Medicinal (MAP) - Thu, 12/24/2015 - 08:00
Ottawa Sun, 24 Dec 2015 - TORONTO - Michael Korchak says he could see the stares and hear the whispers. He'd hit a snag on his trip home to Burlington last Thursday for Christmas and a group of Air Canada employees was gathering around him at its busy departure gate at the Halifax airport.
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CN ON: Smoke Screened

Cannabis - Medicinal (MAP) - Thu, 12/24/2015 - 08:00
Toronto Sun, 24 Dec 2015 - Soldier with medicinal pot barred from flight Michael Korchak says he could see the stares and hear the whispers. He hit a snag on his trip home to Burlington last Thursday for Christmas and a group of Air Canada employees was gathering around him at its busy departure gate at the Halifax airport.
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US DC: Shattering The Pot Paradigm

Cannabis - Medicinal (MAP) - Thu, 12/24/2015 - 08:00
Washington Post, 24 Dec 2015 - Loudoun Deputies Seize Potent Hash-Oil Extract That Contains 80% THC As marijuana extracts expand their presence on the East Coast, an especially potent concentrate is appearing on law enforcement radar.
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US CA: Column: Weed Monopolies, Thanks To Ed Lee

Cannabis - Medicinal (MAP) - Thu, 12/24/2015 - 08:00
SF Weekly, 24 Dec 2015 - San Francisco is the city that does not know how to deal with cannabis. The city has 22 permitted medical marijuana dispensaries, spread unevenly throughout town, although mostly in SoMa and the Mission.
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US AZ: Columm: New Conditions

Cannabis - Medicinal (MAP) - Thu, 12/24/2015 - 08:00
Tucson Weekly, 24 Dec 2015 - NEW CONDITIONS The State Is Failing to Meet the Requirement to Allow New Medical Conditions The Arizona Medical Marijuana Act has provided safe legal access to medical cannabis to sick Arizonans since the passage of Prop 203 in November 2010. The program is regulated by the Arizona Department of Health Services. New conditions can be added to the program during open application periods twice a year, but the rules surrounding the process and the specific standards by which these conditions are approved or denied are largely left to the AZDHS administration. AZDHS has fought hard against all the petitions filed in the history of the program. Only PTSD, with the help of the Arizona Cannabis Nurses Association has been successfully added as a qualifying condition. AZCNA Attorney Ken Sobel appealed the AZDHS denial of PTSD and prevailed.In a huge victory for patient rights, this was special because is it is the first mental health condition to be approved for treatment under the AMMA.
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US CO: Column: The Momentum Behind Medical Marijuana

Cannabis - Medicinal (MAP) - Thu, 12/24/2015 - 08:00
Boulder Weekly, 24 Dec 2015 - As the apothecary movement of dispensaries proves the market and merit of medical marijuana, the industry and its consumers find themselves in a grey area. The federal government promises to keep their nose out of state affairs, especially when it comes to the medical side of cannabis, but before landmark federal endorsement can come, the drug will be subject to the regulatory structures of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), including medical trials and pharmaceutical regulation. There are small permissions for medical marijuana at the federal level, like last week when Congress passed language to stop the Obama Administration's Department of Justice from spending money to block the implementation of state medical marijuana laws. The language is a benchmark in the legalization of medical marijuana, signaling a major shift in drug policy as the reigns on prohibition loosen.
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US CA: No Medi-Pot In Paradise?

Cannabis - Medicinal (MAP) - Thu, 12/24/2015 - 08:00
The Chico News & Review, 24 Dec 2015 - Town of Paradise May Ban Cultivation, Delivery of Medical Marijuana The town of Paradise will soon consider banning the cultivation and delivery of medical marijuana within town limits. The Planning Commission voted 3-2 in favor of a proposed ordinance that would do just that during a special public meeting on Monday (Dec. 21).
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Colombia Legalizes Medical Marijuana

Medical Marijuana (STDW) - Wed, 12/23/2015 - 22:05

Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos Tuesday signed a decree allowing for the cultivation, use, and sale of marijuana for medical purposes. He said that regulating medical marijuana was long overdue, given that Colombians had been using it for years.

[image:1 align:right caption:true]"This decree allows licenses to be granted for the possession of seeds, cannabis plants and marijuana," he said from the presidential palace. "It places Colombia in the group of countries that are at the forefront in the use of natural resources to fight disease."

The measure "does not go against our international commitments on drug control," he was quick to add.

The move is the latest in a series of dramatic shifts in Colombian drug policy this year, made all the more dramatic by the country's long association with US-backed drug war policies. Earlier this year, Colombia ended the aerial spraying of herbicides on coca crops, and this fall, Santos announced a new national drug strategy that shifted emphasis toward alternative development.

For more than two decades, Colombians have been able to legally possess small amounts of drugs for personal use thanks to constitutional court rulings, but the government has been loath to act to regulate any drugs, in part because of fears of being shown to be "weak on drugs." But that seems to be ending with the Santos government.

Now, Colombia is joining Latin American nations from Mexico to Uruguay to Chile in moving either toward decriminalizing marijuana or allowing its medicinal use, or both.

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The Smoke Clears on California Marijuana Legalization as AUMA Takes Center Stage [FEATURE]

Medical Marijuana (STDW) - Wed, 12/23/2015 - 21:44

This article was produced in collaboration with AlterNet and first appeared here.

After several years of jostling since the defeat of Proposition 19 in 2010, the smoke has cleared in California and it now appears that a single, well-funded marijuana legalization initiative will go before the voters next November. That vehicle is the California Control, Tax, and Regulate Adult Use of Marijuana Act (AUMA), backed by Silicon Valley tech billionaire Sean Parker, WeedMaps head Justin Hartfield, Lt. Gov. Gavin Newsom (D), and a growing cast of state and national players.

[image:1 align:left]The AUMU has sucked all the air out of the room for other proposed initiatives, most notably the measure from the California Coalition for Cannabis Policy Reform (ReformCA), which had been widely assumed to the effort around which the state's various cannabis factions could coalesce.

Instead, more than half of the ReformCA board members have now endorsed the AUMA, including Oaksterdam University founder and Prop 19 organizer Richard Lee, California Cannabis Industry Association director Nate Bradley, Law Enforcement Against Prohibition (LEAP) head Neill Franklin, Students for Sensible Drug Policy (SSDP) deputy director Stacia Cosner, and Dr. Bronner's Magic Soap head David Bronner.

That move came earlier this month, after proponents of the AUMA amended their initial proposal to provide safeguards against child use and protections for workers, small businesses, and local governments that also bring it closer in line with Newsom's Blue Ribbon Commission on Marijuana Policy.

"These amendments reflect a collaborative process of public and expert engagement and make an extremely strong measure even stronger," Dr. Donald O. Lyman, MD, the measure's lead proponent said in a statement. "This measure now includes even more protections for children, workers, small business, and local governments while ensuring strict prohibitions on marketing to kids and monopoly practices."

"We have carefully reviewed amendments submitted by the proponents of the AUMA, and we're convinced it's time to endorse that initiative and unite everyone behind a single, consensus measure to achieve a legal regulated system, which a majority of voters have consistently said they want," Bronner said in a statement.

Here's what the AUMA would do:

Local control. Cities and counties can regulate or totally prohibit commercial marijuana cultivation, processing, sales, and deliveries, but they can't ban deliveries merely passing through their jurisdiction. They can ban even personal outdoor grows, but not indoor ones.

Personal possession. Adults 21 and over can possess up to an ounce or eight grams of concentrate.

Personal cultivation. Adults can grow up to six plants per household, if their localities don't ban personal outdoor grows. Also, landlords maintain the right to ban cultivation or even possession on their property. Growers can possess all the fruits of their harvest.

Social consumption. Localities may allow on-site marijuana consumption at designated businesses.

Public consumption. Not allowed.

Taxation. A 15% excise tax on marijuana products, plus state and local sales taxes, plus a $9.25 an ounce cultivation tax on buds and a $2.75 one on leaves. Also, counties may impose additional taxes, subject to a popular vote.

Regulation. The state agencies empowered to regulate medical marijuana under this year's three-bill regulation package have their briefs expanded to include non-medical marijuana as well.

Licensing. Provides tiered licensing based on business type and size, but to protect small businesses bars the issuance of the largest tier of cultivation licenses for five years and creates a special licensing tier for "microbusinesses."

Employee drug testing. Still allowed.

Criminal offenses. Possession of more than an ounce, cultivation of more than six plants, unlicensed sales, and possession for sale are all six-month misdemeanors, reduced from felonies, although they can still be charged as felonies in some cases.

[image:2 align:right caption:true]This past weekend, the AUMA picked up the support of Tim Blake, organizer of the Emerald Cup in Santa Rosa, which this year drew a record crow to the annual growers' competition/trade show.

"You know what, I'm going to endorse this thing," Blake told activists assembled for a legalization debate.

His endorsement drew a mixed reaction from the crowd, many of whom want to see a more wide open form of legalization. That's a sentiment that's shared by some prominent figures in the state's marijuana community. Dale Gieringer, a ReformCA board member and long-time head of Cal NORML is one of them.

"This is like 60% legalization," he said. "Some people on the board endorsed it, but I didn't endorse, and Cal NORML doesn't endorse it. We're a consumer organization, and from the standpoint of consumers, the AUMA is the worst drafted one," he said, ticking off a list of issues.

"Cities can still ban dispensaries, deliveries, and outdoor cultivation," he noted, "and it makes it illegal to consume publicly. There are a lot of medical marijuana users in San Francisco where the only legal place they can smoke is the street. And it treats vaping like smoking, which is totally outrageous and unjustified in our opinion."

"These are all major disappointments," he said. "This was an opportunity for California to move ahead of the rest of the country, but instead they blew it with excessive language. This is 60 pages of text. We'll be looking at years and years of litigation."

[image:3 align:left caption:true]That doesn't necessarily mean Cal NORML will oppose it, though, Gieringer said.

"If it ends up being the only thing on the ballot in November, I suspect we would support it," he conceded.

At this point, that looks extremely likely to be the case. None of the other initiatives are showing any signs that they have the organization or the funding to go out and get the 365,000 valid voter signatures needed to make the ballot.

Gieringer also conceded that passage of the AUMA would be progress.

"If it passes, it will do three valuable things," he said. "Adults can grow six plants and possess an ounce. Just allowing for personal use is extremely important. The AUMA decreases mandatory felony penalties for cultivation or possession with intent to sell down to misdemeanors in most cases, and that's important. And it establishes a legal marketplace for adult use."

The AUMA may not be perfect, but unless Californians are willing to go another election cycle or wait for the legislature to legalize it, this is most likely what they'll have a chance to vote for.

Categories: Medical Marijuana

Chronicle AM: DOJ Suspends Asset Forfeiture Progam, Syrians Flee ISIS for Lebanon's Hash Trade, More (12/23/15)

Medical Marijuana (STDW) - Wed, 12/23/2015 - 20:39

Two federal agencies make drug policy-related announcements, Syrians are fleeing the ISIS caliphate to work in the hash fields of Lebanon, and more.

[image:1 align:left caption:true]Medical Marijuana

DEA Eases Requirements for Natural Marijuana-Derived Research. The DEA today eased some restrictions on research evaluating cannabidiol (CBD) for medicinal use. The changes will relax some requirements imposed by the Controlled Substances Act on use of CBD in specific US Food and Drug Administration-approved research protocols. The changes are in effect immediately.

New Hampshire to Begin Issuing Medical Marijuana ID Cards. State officials said today that they will begin issuing ID cards to registered medical marijuana patients beginning Monday. While dispensaries in the state won't open until the spring, people with the ID cards will be able to buy medical marijuana in neighboring states that have reciprocity.

Asset Forfeiture

Justice Department Suspends Asset Forfeiture Equitable Sharing Program. The Justice Department released a memorandum Monday notifying law enforcement agencies that it is temporarily suspending the equitable sharing program asset forfeiture funds because of tight budgets. This means law enforcement agencies will no longer get a share of federal funds confiscated through civil asset forfeiture, and that means law enforcement agencies have lost a considerable financial incentive to turn drug busts over to the feds. Many state laws require seized funds to be allocated to the general fund or education funds, and law enforcement agencies used the federal equitable sharing program to get around those laws. Under the federal program, the local seizing agency got 80% of the haul.

International

Syrians Flee ISIS to Harvest Hash in Lebanon. Refugees from Raqqa, the capital of the ISIS caliphate, are fleeing across the border to Lebanon, where they can get work in that country's booming cannabis trade. Their work in the trade places them in danger of retribution from the jihadists if they return home, they said. "If Islamic State back home knew we work with hashish, they would cut us" with knives, said one refugee.

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US HI: Medical Marijuana Price May Grow

Cannabis - Medicinal (MAP) - Wed, 12/23/2015 - 08:00
Garden Island, 23 Dec 2015 - Enclosed-Growing Rule Could Cost Kauai Dispensary Investors Millions A definition in the interim administrative rules for medical marijuana dispensaries posted this month could cost Kauai dispensary investors millions of dollars in utility and construction costs.
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CN BC: Taking Next Step On Marijuana

Cannabis - Medicinal (MAP) - Wed, 12/23/2015 - 08:00
Hamilton Spectator, 23 Dec 2015 - Canadians With Dope Convictions Call on PM to Offer Pardons Marcus Richardson is, in the eyes of the law, a criminal. Never mind that a judge ruled the six kilograms of cannabis police found in his car was for severely ill patients at a medical marijuana dispensary.
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CN BC: Marijuana Issue Heating Up

Cannabis - Medicinal (MAP) - Wed, 12/23/2015 - 08:00
The Record, 23 Dec 2015 - Canadians with dope convictions call for pardons VANCOUVER - Marcus Richardson is, in the eyes of the law, a criminal. Never mind that a judge ruled the six kilograms of cannabis police found in his car was for severely ill patients at a medical marijuana dispensary.
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CN BC: Canadians With Marijuana Convictions Call On Trudeau To Offer

Cannabis - Medicinal (MAP) - Wed, 12/23/2015 - 08:00
The Record, 23 Dec 2015 - Marcus Richardson is, in the eyes of the law, a criminal. Never mind that a judge ruled the six kilograms of cannabis police found in his car was for severely ill patients at a medical marijuana dispensary.
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Canada: Editorial: Evidence, Please

Cannabis - Medicinal (MAP) - Wed, 12/23/2015 - 08:00
Globe and Mail, 23 Dec 2015 - EVIDENCE, PLEASE Medical marijuana's eloquent advocates make persistent and powerful claims for its therapeutic value. It is often portrayed as benign and risk-free. But the challenge for doctors is that, unlike most other drugs, there is a paucity of scientific evidence to support its status as a medicine, describe its benefits, itemize its side effects and recommend the right dosage.Marijuana simply hasn't been tested to the same degree as most other pharmaceuticals. Even doctors who want to prescribe it don't know as much as they should.
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US CO: Weed A Risky Business For Banks

Cannabis - Medicinal (MAP) - Wed, 12/23/2015 - 08:00
Sun-Sentinel, 23 Dec 2015 - Legal Sellers Also Face Difficulties As Marijuana Remains Federally Outlawed DENVER - The Fourth Corner Credit Union occupies a prime spot in downtown Denver, not far from the state Capitol. It has a big safe, four teller windows, drive-up service and a banner out front that says, "The Fourth Corner Credit Union Coming Soon." But there's a problem. The Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City in Missouri, which oversees Denver, has refused Fourth Corner's request for a "master account," essentially a bank account allowing it to do business.
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